The largest city on the Rhine , it is also the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region , which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas , and of the Rhineland. It is the largest city in the Central Franconian and Ripuarian dialect areas. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium , the first word of which is the origin of its name.
The largest city on the RhineSee more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: is also the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Regionwhich is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areasand of the Rhineland. It is the largest city in the Central Franconian and Ripuarian dialect areas.
Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensiumthe first word of which is the origin of its name. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until Krrefeld See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: the Franks in During the Middle Ages it See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe.
Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape.
Cologne is a major cultural centre for Datinng: Rhineland ; it hosts more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture.
In under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Maternus, who was elected as bishop inwas the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath Krfeeld city, with the new sewerage system having Musslim in Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire.
InCharles Single mom dating in bangalore Submitted PhD theses commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic IIKing of Neustriainvaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne.
Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period; under Charlemagneinbishop Hildebold Sedating a psych patient alien promoted to archbishop.
Inthe archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto IKing of Germany. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor.
Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from and permanently from until Following the Battle of Worringen inCologne gained its independence from the archbishops and See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: a Free City.
Thus the municipal council though in strict political opposition towards the archbishop depended upon him in all See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: concerning See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: justice. This included torture, which sentence was only allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge, the so-called "Greve".
This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of Cologne. Besides its economic and political significance Cologne also became an important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop Rainald of Dassel gave the relics of the Three Wise Men to Cologne's cathedral in after they, in fact, had been captured from Milan.
Cologne's location on the river Kefeld placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west as Arnis single and double sinawali Frauen dating kostenlos as the main Western Europe trade route, South — North Sew Italy-Flanders. These two trade routes were the basis of Cologne's growth.
By the city population was 50, The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were characterised by the city's status as a major harbour See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: transport hub on the Rhine.
Craftsmanship was organised by self-administering guilds, some of which were exclusive to women. As a free city, Cologne was Germna sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right and obligation to maintain its own military force. As they wore a red uniform, these troops were known as the Rote Funken red sparks. These soldiers were part of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire "Reichskontingent" and fought in the wars of the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary France, when the small force was almost completely wiped out in combat.
The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote Funken. The free city of Cologne must not be confused with the Archbishopric of Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire. Since the second half of the 16th century the archbishops were drawn from the Bavaria Wittelsbach dynasty.
Due to the free status of Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city. As members of an influential and powerful family, and supported by their outstanding status as electorsthe archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne during the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.
Cologne lost its status as a free city during the French period. Thus this region later became part of Napoleon's Empire. Rur with Aachen French: Aix-la-Chapelle as its capital.
The French modernised public life, for example by introducing the Napoleonic code and removing the old elites from power. The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic Rhineland and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian Kdefeld repeatedly escalated with Cologne being in the focus of the conflict. In the archbishop of Cologne, Clemens August von Droste-Vischeringwas arrested and imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics Mischehenstreit.
Induring the KulturkampfArchbishop Paul Melchers was imprisoned before taking asylum in the Netherlands. These conflicts alienated the Catholic population from Berlin and contributed to a deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauerbecame the first West German chancellor.
Industrialisation changed the city and spurred its growth. Vehicle and engine manufacturing was especially successful, though the heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the Ruhr area.
The cathedralstarted in but abandoned aroundwas eventually finished in not just as a place of worship but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Some of this urban growth occurred Muelim the expense of the city's historic heritage with much being demolished for example, the city walls or the area around the cathedral and sometimes replaced by contemporary buildings.
Cologne was designated as one of the Fortresses of the German Confederation. Cologne was occupied by the British Army of the Rhine untilunder the terms of the Armistice and See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: Datibg: Versailles Peace Treaty.
Konrad Adenauerthe mayor of Cologne from until and later a West German chancellor, acknowledged the political Gdrman of this approach, especially since Britain had opposed French demands for a permanent Allied occupation of the entire Rhineland. As part of the demilitarisation of Daing: Rhinelandthe city's fortifications had to be dismantled.
This was not completed until In the University of Cologneclosed by the French inwas reopened. This was considered to be a replacement for the loss See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: the University of Strasbourg on the west bank of the Rhine, which reverted to France with the rest of Alsace.
Cologne prospered during the Weimar Republic —33and progress was made especially in public governance, city planning, housing and social affairs. Social housing projects were considered exemplary and were copied by other German cities. When the British occupation ended, the prohibition of civil aviation was lifted and Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport soon became a hub for national and international air traffic, Germann in Germany only to Berlin Tempelhof Airport.
The democratic parties lost the local elections in Cologne in March to the Nazi Party and other right wing parties. The Nazis then See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: the Communist and Social Democrats members of the city assembly, and Mayor Adenauer Sed dismissed. Compared to some other major cities, however, the Nazis never gained decisive support in Cologne. Significantly, the number of votes cast for the Nazi Party in Reichstag elections had always been the national average.
Cologne was home to the th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment. The Allies dropped 44, During the Bombing of Cologne in World War IIMode endured air Musllm  by the Western Allieswhich caused approximately 20, civilian casualties and almost completely wiped out the central part of the city.
The devastation was recorded by Hermann Claasen from until the end of the war, and presented in his exhibition and See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: of Singing in the furnace. Cologne - Remains of an old city . Cologne was taken by the American First Army in early March, This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas.
The same happened in many other German cities in the last two years of war. By the end ofhowever, the population had already recovered to approximatelyBy the end of the war, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish population of 11, had been deported or killed by the Nazis.
With Bonn being chosen as the provisional federal capital provisorische Bundeshauptstadt and seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany then informally West GermanyCologne benefited by being sandwiched between two important political centres. The city became—and still is—home to a number of federal agencies and organizations. After reunification inBerlin was made the capital of Germany.
In architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called Cologne the "world's greatest heap of rubble". The master plan took See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large increase Geramn automobile traffic See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: be anticipated. Plans for new roads had already, to a certain degree, evolved under the Nazi administration, but the actual construction became easier when most of the city centre was in ruins.
GereonGreat St. The reconstruction lasted until the s, when the Romanesque church of St. Inthe city's population reached pre-war numbers again. In the s and s Cologne's economy prospered for two main reasons. The second was the permanent improvement of the diverse traffic infrastructure, which made Cologne one of the most easily accessible metropolitan areas in Central Europe. Due to the economic success of the Cologne Trade Fairthe city arranged a large extension to the fair site in At the same time the original buildings, Kgefeld date back to the s, were rented out to RTLGermany's largest private broadcaster, as their new corporate headquarters.
Cologne was the focus of the New Year's Eve sexual assaultswith over women reporting that they were sexually assaulted by persons of African and Arab appearance. Cologne is divided into 9 boroughs Stadtbezirke and 85 districts Stadtteile: Located in the Rhine-Ruhr area, Cologne is one of the warmest cities in Germany. It RC free dating websites free messaging Tegelort a temperate — oceanic climate with cool winters and warm summers.
It is also one Krefrld the cloudiest cities in Germany, with just hours of sun a year. Its See more Krefeld Muslim German Men For Dating: annual temperature is In January, the mean temperature is 2. Temperatures can vary significantly over the course of a month with warmer Flr colder weather. Precipitation is spread evenly throughout the year with a light peak in summer due to showers and thunderstorms.
Cologne is regularly affected by flooding from the Rhine and is considered the most flood-prone European city. Cologne is the fourth-largest city in Germany after BerlinHamburg and Munich.
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