Universal health care also called universal health coverage , universal coverage , universal care , or socialized health care is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country. It is organized around providing a specified package of benefits to all members of a society with the end goal of providing financial risk protection, improved access to health services, and improved health outcomes. Universal health care does not imply coverage for all people for everything. Universal health care can be determined by three critical dimensions:
Universal health care also called universal health Universal dating international More informationuniversal coverageuniversal careor socialized health care is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection dzting all citizens of a particular country. It is organized around providing a specified package of benefits to all members of a society with the end goal of providing financial risk protection, improved access to health services, and improved health outcomes. Universal health care does not imply coverage for all people for everything.
Universal health care can be determined by three critical dimensions: As part of Sustainable Development GoalsUnited Nations member Universal dating international More information have agreed to work toward worldwide universal health coverage by Universal dating international More information first move towards a national health insurance system was launched in Universal dating international More information inwith the Sickness Insurance Law. Industrial employers were mandated to provide injury and illness insurance for their low-wage workers, and the system was funded and administered by employees and employers through "sick funds", which were drawn from deductions in workers' wages and from employers' contributions.
Other countries soon began to follow suit. In the United Kingdomthe National Insurance Act provided coverage for primary care Universal dating international More information not specialist or hospital care for wage earners, covering about one third of the population.
The Russian Empire established a similar system inand other industrialized countries began following suit. By the s, similar systems existed in virtually all of Western and Central Europe. Japan introduced an employee health insurance law inexpanding further upon it in and Following the Russian Revolution ofthe Soviet Union established a fully public and centralized health care system in In New Zealanda universal health care system was created in a series of steps, from to Following World War IIuniversal health Best dating app india 2016 systems began to be set up around the world.
Universal health care was next introduced in the Nordic countries of Sweden Iceland internayional,  Norwaydatjng Denmark Universal dating international More information Finland Universal health insurance was implemented in Australia beginning with the Medibank system which led to universal coverage under the Univegsal system.
From the s to the s, Southern and Western European countries began introducing universal coverage, most of them building upon previous health insurance programs to cover the whole population. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia retained and reformed its universal health care system,  as did other former Soviet nations and Eastern bloc countries. Universal health care in most countries has been informatkon by a mixed model of funding.
Almost all European systems are financed through a mix of public and private contributions. Some nations, such as Germany and France  and Japan  employ a multipayer system in which health care is funded by private and public contributions. However, much of the non-government funding is by contributions by employers and employees to regulated non-profit sickness funds. Contributions are compulsory and defined according to law.
A distinction is also made between municipal and national healthcare funding. For example, one model is that the bulk of the healthcare is funded by the municipality, speciality healthcare is provided and possibly funded by a larger entity, such as a municipal co-operation board or the state, and the medications Dating coach regensburg.
Regensburg Bus: rent coaches for transfers and sightseeing tours paid by a state agency. A paper by Sherry A. Glied from Informmation University found that universal health care systems are modestly redistributive, and that the progressivity of health care financing has limited implications for overall income inequality.
This is usually enforced via legislation requiring residents to purchase insurance, internatiional sometimes the government provides the insurance. Sometimes, there may be a choice of multiple public and private funds providing a standard George springer dating flirten munster kostenlos HC24 Universal dating international More information in Germany or sometimes just a single public fund as in Canada.
In some European countries, in informatiom private insurance and universal health care coexist, such as Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands, the problem of adverse selection is overcome by using a risk compensation pool to equalize, as far as possible, the risks between funds. Thus, a fund with a predominantly healthy, younger population has to pay into a compensation pool and a fund with an older and predominantly less healthy population would receive funds from the pool.
In this way, sickness funds compete on price, and there is no advantage to eliminate people with higher risks because they are compensated for by means of risk-adjusted capitation payments. Funds are not allowed to pick and choose their policyholders or deny coverage, but they compete mainly Universal dating international More information price and service. In some countries, the basic coverage level is set by the government and cannot be modified.
The Republic of Ireland at one time had a "community rating" system by VHIeffectively a single-payer or common risk pool. The government later opened VHI to competition but without a compensation pool. That resulted in foreign insurance companies entering the Irish market and offering cheap health insurance to relatively healthy segments of the market, which then made higher The dating detox gemma burgess ebook Jens S.
am 11.06.2018 at VHI's expense. The government later reintroduced community rating by a pooling arrangement and at least one main major insurance company, BUPA, then withdrew from the Irish market. Among the potential solutions posited by economists are single-payer systems Best european dating sites Firmenphilosophie well as Universal dating international More information methods of ensuring that health insurance is universal, such as by requiring all citizens to purchase insurance or limiting the ability of insurance companies to deny insurance to individuals or vary price between individuals.
Single-payer health care is a system in which the government, rather than private insurers, pays for cating health care costs. Although the Universal dating international More information holder is usually the state, some forms of single-payer use a mixed public-private system. In tax-based financing, individuals contribute to the provision of health services through various taxes.
These are typically pooled across the whole population, unless local governments raise and retain tax revenues. Other countries with insurance-based systems effectively Uiversal the cost of insuring those unable to insure themselves via social security arrangements funded from infromation, either by directly paying their medical iternational or by paying for insurance premiums for those affected.
In a social health insurance system, contributions from workers, the self-employed, enterprises, and governments are pooled into a single or multiple funds on a compulsory basis.
It is based on risk Universxl. Preventive and public health care may be provided by these funds or responsibility kept solely by the Ministry of Health. Within social health insurance, a number of functions may be executed by parastatal or non-governmental sickness funds or in a few cases, by private health insurance companies. Social health insurance is used in a number of Western European countries and increasingly in Eastern Europe as well as in Israel and Japan.
In private health insurance, premiums are paid directly from employers, associations, individuals and families to insurance companies, which pool risks across their membership base. Private insurance includes policies sold by commercial Universal dating international More information profit firms, non-profit companies, and community health insurers.
Generally, private insurance is voluntary in contrast to social insurance programs, which tend to be compulsory. In some countries Universal dating international More information universal coverage, Universal dating international More information insurance often excludes many health conditions that are expensive and the state health care system can provide.
For Universql, in the United Kingdom, one of the largest private health care providers is BUPAwhich has a long list of general exclusions even in its highest coverage policy,  most of which are routinely provided by the National Health Service.
In the United States, dialysis treatment for end stage renal failure is generally paid for by government, not by the insurance The dating detox gemma burgess ebook Jens S. am 11.06.2018. Those with privatized Medicare Medicare Advantage are the exception and must get their dialysis paid through their insurance company, but with end stage renal failure generally cannot buy Medicare Advantage plans.
The Planning Commission of India has also suggested that the country should embrace insurance to achieve universal health coverage. A particular form of private health insurance that has often emerged if financial risk protection mechanisms have only a limited impact is community-based health insurance. Individual members of a specific rating pay to a collective health fund, which they can draw from when they need of medical care. Contributions Universal dating international More information not risk-related, and there is generally a high level of community involvement in the running of these plans.
In some countries, such as the UK, Spain, Italy, Australia and the Nordic countries, the government has a high degree of involvement in the commissioning or delivery of health care services Universal dating international More information access is based on residence datkng, not on the purchase of insurance.
Others have a much more pluralistic delivery system, based on obligatory health with contributory insurance rates related to salaries or income and usually funded by employers and beneficiaries jointly. These insurance based systems tend to reimburse private or public medical providers, often at heavily regulated rates, through mutual or publicly owned medical insurers. A internatiobal countries, such as the Netherlands and Switzerland, innformation via privately owned but heavily regulated private insurers, which are not allowed to make a profit from the mandatory element of insurance but can profit by selling supplemental insurance.
Universal health care Universal dating international More information a broad concept that has been implemented in several ways. The Universal dating international More information denominator for all such programs is some form of government action aimed at extending access to health care as widely as possible and setting minimum standards. Most implement universal health care through legislation, regulation and taxation. Legislation and regulation direct what care must be provided, to whom, and on what basis.
Usually, some costs are borne by the patient at the time of consumption, but the bulk of costs come from a combination of compulsory insurance and tax revenues.
Some programs are paid for entirely out of tax revenues. In others, tax revenues are used either to fund insurance for the very Universal dating international More information or for those needing long-term chronic care.
The United Kingdom National Audit Office in published an international comparison of ten different health care systems in ten developed countries, nine universal systems against one non-universal system the United Statesand their relative costs and key health outcomes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Universal health coverage by country. List of countries with universal health care. Health system and Health systems by country. Healthcare reform debate in the United States Health insurance cooperative List of countries by health insurance coverage National health insurance Primary healthcare Public health Publicly funded health care Right to health Single-payer healthcare Socialized medicine Two-tier healthcare.
Retrieved April 11, Retrieved November 30, Issues for Healthy Public Policy " ". International Journal of Informwtion Policy and Management. Retrieved 14 September Retrieved September 30, Closing the door to destitution: Pennsylvania State Universal dating international More information Press. Retrieved March 11, Mein Smith, Philippa A concise history of New Zealand 2nd ed. In Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The shaping of the Swedish health system. Universal and comprehensive health insurance was debated at intervals all through the Universal dating international More information World War, and in such a bill was voted in Parliament.
For financial and other reasons, its promulgation was delayed untilat which time coverage was extended to include drugs and sickness compensation, as well. Health services in Norway. Since 2 July the entire population of Norway has been included under the obligatory health national insurance program. The national health system in Denmark. National Institutes of Health. Insuring national health care: University of North Carolina Press.
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The International Date Line is located halfway around the world from the prime meridian (0° longitude) or about ° east (or west) of Greenwich, London, UK. For Group Subscription information call sales of the album outside the U.S. to date are more than ,, says Universal Music International. International Day for Universal Access to Information. Start date: 28/09/18; End date: None; Duration: All Day: All Day (Time Zone Sensitive); Type: will provide for more countries adopting FOI (freedom of information) legislation, developing.